Above The Law
Around 1900 Max Weber outlined his “scientific” approach to law, identifying the “legal rational type” as a type of domination, not attributable to personal authority however to the authority of abstract norms. Formal legal rationality was his time period for the vital thing characteristic of the type of coherent and calculable law that was a precondition for modern political developments and the fashionable bureaucratic state. Weber noticed this law as having developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism. Another main sociologist, Émile Durkheim, wrote in his traditional work The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes extra complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows on the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions. Other notable early authorized sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petrażycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the U.S.